2. Details of Events
Early Indications of the Military Coup in Egypt:
Security Institutions Lose Neutrality
On June 16, 2013 the Egyptian Police Officers Club convened a meeting, attended by the leaders of the Ministry of Interior, in which – to loud applause – police officers declared openly that they as a security institution would no longer do their part in maintaining the security of Egyptian citizens or their property if they hold different political opinions or if they belong to the Islamist movement or the party to which the elected president Mohamed Morsi belonged. Interior Minister Mohamed Ibrahim was complicit in this by approving the decision and failing to take any measures to protect the lives and property of supporters of the President. On June 17, 2013 Ibrahim made a statement that echoed that same decision in an interview with a TV host known for her hostility towards the President.
Immediately following the minister's statement, an unprecedented continuous and escalating wave of incitement to violence and hatred began on all satellite TV channels belonging to businessmen affiliated to Mubarak and his former regime or to political currents opposed to the President. This seditious discourse was joined by a number of politicians who had failed to get in office or into the legislatures through the ballot box. This wave of incitement led to sizeable crowds turning out in continuous demonstrations accompanied with general popular anger over certain crises affecting social and living conditions, such as a severe shortage of diesel and gasoline fuels, frequent electric power cuts, and a rise in prices of some major commodities that the government failed to deal with or control.
Parties' Headquarters and Private Property Attacked and Torched Based on Their Political Opinion
Demonstrations began spontaneously and at the invitation of the National Salvation Front and the Popular Current. A number of demonstrators along with so-called thugs, with the complicity or even with the support and blessing of the Ministry of Interior (as many videos and pictures show), torched some citizens’ homes, certain political parties’ headquarters and many shops, commercial enterprises and other private property, especially those belonging to supporters of the President – in all provinces across the nation. Even worse, they killed a number of supporters of the President as they tried to defend their own property and challenge the attacking thugs, while the police refrained from protecting the victims, although the clashes lasted for long periods of time, up to 12 hours in some of the incidents.
The arson and looting of the premises and properties of the President's supporters continued in provinces all over Egypt, with complicity of the Ministry of Interior, which sometimes transported heavily-armed thugs in police and other armored vehicles to carry out the brutal attacks.
Security Apparatus Bias
As the President’s opponents came out in June 30 demonstrations, so did his supporters – in many pro-Morsi demonstrations. Then, it became very clear that the police and army security apparatuses were biased in favor of opponents of the President. They even encouraged and motivated anti-Morsi protesters, distributing flags, fruit-juices and cold water to them. Worse still, army and police soldiers and officers participated in demonstrations and raised banners against the President and against the Islamist current represented by the President, demanding the departure of the ruling regime in Egypt and the exclusion of Islamists from political life altogether.
Following June 30 protest rallies that demanded early presidential elections or the President’s resignation, President Mohamed Morsi suggested an initiative to resolve the crisis politically with continued commitment to the path of constitutional legitimacy, resorting to the ballot box in fast-tracked House of Representatives elections, after which the House of Representatives could take a majority vote to remove the President or let him complete his term, in accordance with the Constitution. The President affirmed that that was the democratic option supported by constitutional legitimacy as approved by the Egyptian people in five important elections and referendums. However, the following day on July 3, 2013, General Abdel-Fattah Al Sisi, the defense minister, arrested the President and his aides in an unknown location. In a televised speech to the people, General Al Sisi declared the appointment of the president of the Supreme Constitutional Court as interim president of Egypt, suspended the Constitution, disbanded the Shura Council (Upper House), and announced a future roadmap for the period after the coup.
It transpired then that the coup leaders were deliberately suspending the law and giving the green light to security forces to start the monstrous machine of repression and restriction of freedoms in Egypt.
Shuttering TV Channels Opposed to the Coup Immediately after the military coup was announced, security authorities – within minutes – closed a large number of TV channels suspected of opposition to the military coup, notably Al-Jazeera and Misr25, as well as some other Islamic TV channels. Indeed, the headquarters and studios of Al-Jazeera were raided while still on air and transmission was stopped on the spot. The same happened with all channels perceived to support President Morsi.
Details of First Nahda Square Events, July 2 (Bayn Al-Sarayat Area)
The coup executed by the armed forces, represented in General Al Sisi, fueled feelings of anger among those belonging to the Islamic current and supporters of the elected President, and even some opponents who wanted to end the rule of President Morsi but not to replace by military rule yet again. The people then turned out in massive popular demonstrations in all parts of Egypt. Sit-ins were concentrated in key areas, most famous of which is Nahda Square in Giza and Rabaa Al-Adaweya Square in Nasr City. Then, hostile pro-coup media began a relentless smear campaign inciting violence against the demonstrators and protesters opposed to the coup, accusing them of terrorism, extremism and organized violence.
Pro-military media further accused peaceful protesters of acts of sabotage carried out by unknown assailants in the Sinai. Groups of supporters of the coup, under the influence of systematic media incitement, began a series of attacks on demonstrations, sit-ins and marches that rejected to the coup. It was noted by the researchers that these attacks took place in the presence of Interior Ministry forces and the army, where they either refrained from taking measures to protect peaceful sit-in protesters and demonstrators or protected thugs and supporters of the coup with army and police armored vehicles as they launched their savage attacks.
In Nahda Square, groups of armed thugs came from Bayn Al-Sarayat area and attacked an anti-coup march in brutal bloody clashes which resulted in 44 deaths and 422 injuries of various degrees including wounds from live ammunition in various places of the body. Thugs then formed so-called ‘popular committees’ – bands of men that started stopping and searching vehicles and persons, in complete absence of security following the violent clashes. These clashes were repeated whenever an anti-coup march moved to or from the Nahda Square sit-in.
Maspero Events, July 5
On the evening of Friday – July 5, 2013 a huge march by the President's supporters was attacked near the state TV building called Maspero. Thugs accompanied by police forces attacked peaceful demonstrators with extreme violence, using firearms and live ammunition, killing 3 people and injuring dozens of unarmed citizens. In this incident, the police appeared to be working openly with the thugs who attacked the anti-coup march.
Sidi Gaber events, July 5
On Friday at 6:00PM, security forces attacked a protest while marching in Sidi Gaber, Alexandria, with live ammunitions, birdshots and tear gas ganisters, with the support of thugs who were contributing by throwing rocks at the protesters and injuring them with bladed weapons. Sidi Gaber Mosque turned into a field hospital, which was surrounded by thugs on all its entries and also blocked all the roads; preventing ambulances from transferring bodies of victims or providing medical aid to those injured. The attacks lasted four hours. It ended at 11:00PM. The attacks resulted in the killing of 52 who were shot directly in the head, neck and chest.
Details of First Republican Guard Events, July 6
At noon, on Saturday – July 6, 2013 the forces in charge of securing the Republican Guard Club fired live bullets at the head of one of the peaceful protesters, Mohamed Sobhi, 34, as marchers went past the building. Photos and videos documenting the incident showed that in spite of the presence of barbed wire between the demonstrator and the on-site troops, and although he was clearly peaceful and unarmed, he was extra-judicially killed.
Republican Guard Massacre, July 8
At dawn, on Monday – July 8, 2013 the army and police forces surrounding the Republican Guard Club attacked protesters outside with tear gas canisters and birdshots. Although researchers were not able to determine why the attack began, the testimonies we collected indicate that the attack started as protesters went down in prayer. Other testimonies claimed that some demonstrators threw stones at the forces in charge of securing the Republican Guard Club, prompting troops to fire tear gas. We could not verify either version because of the severely tightened restrictions on researchers and because the armed forces refuse to provide or show video surveillance tapes of cameras monitoring the scene throughout the period of the clashes or using their own cameramen as seen in many photos that came through. The attack on unarmed demonstrators then started using live bullets excessively, and as forces deliberately shot to kill some of the demonstrators, killing 59 people – shot mostly straight in the heart or head , which shows a clear intent to kill by the attacking forces. The violent crackdown also resulted in wounding hundreds. The killing was mostly by snipers and forces stationed behind the barbed wire and troops on rooftops of Republican Guard Club building. The shooting lasted nearly six hours, during which the security forces arrested 752 people. Later, prosecutors released some of those on bail ranging between five thousand Egyptian pounds and two thousand pounds, and ordered the imprisonment of others. Then, prosecutors released the remaining protesters after paying the same bail money.
Researchers collected 100 testimonies on this incident, from the injured, eyewitnesses and local residents, but Inaniya Foundation keeps this information to protect those citizens from prosecution by security forces. Inaniya Foundation is willing to submit those testimonies to any local or international judicial bodies, provided guarantees are given to ensure confidentiality, due to the deteriorating legal situation in Egypt.
Ramses and Giza Events, July 15
On the evening of July 15, 2013 – at eight o'clock to be more precise – a group of anti-coup peaceful protesters started a nonviolent march to Ramses Square from Rabaa Al-Adaweya Square, while another set out in a peaceful march from the sit-in at Nahda Square to Giza Square. Soon, Central Security forces started a brutal crackdown on the demonstrators using excessive force, firing heavy barrages of tear-gas canisters and birdshots into the crowds. These forces were accompanied by some thugs and criminals wielding firearms and bladed weapons, as they used military and police armored vehicles for cover. These attacks killed one demonstrator and injured 140 others in Ramses Square, and also killed four protesters and injured dozens in Giza Square .
The thugs, together with the police forces, then surrounded the Al-Fateh Mosque at Ramses Square, where they trapped protesters for nearly 18 hours inside the mosque, including injured men and women. Thugs then started throwing Molotov cocktails on those besieged inside the mosque. Supported by the police, thugs also attacked anyone who tried to get out of the mosque. Another group of thugs laid siege to the Bab Al-Sheareya hospital to which many injured protesters had been moved to receive treatment. Thugs made ferocious attempts to attack people there, too. These attacks resulted in the arrest of 477 people who were rounded up and interrogated in Bab Al-Sheareya, Azbakeya, Dhaher and Darb Al-Ahmar police stations.
Security forces, which rounded up and detained those protesters, tortured and terribly abused them physically and psychologically, with beatings and electric shocks, kicking their faces and the backs of their heads. Some detainees had their clothes removed and were sexually assaulted, about which detainees' lawyers filed 12 complaints to the Attorney General. Moreover, some detainees stated that their complaints of torture were lodged with the prosecution (as seen and confirmed by the HRM’s lawyers), but the public prosecutor refused to take any action against those who had committed those crimes of torture. Instead, the prosecution subjected the defendants to interrogation at their places of detention, making a number of defendants fearful of reporting torture crimes, so they would not have to face the wrath of those who detained them.
General Al Sisi’s Seditious Speech of July 24, 2013
On July 24, General Al Sisi gave a speech on Egyptian national television that included direct incitement to civil strife, hatred and violence against a sector of the Egyptian people based on these people’s political opposition to the coup.
In his speech, Al Sisi described coup opponents as terrorists and saboteurs. He further urged the Egyptian people to rally on the following Friday as a challenge to those who oppose the coup, and in order to give Al Sisi a mandate to fight Egyptians who reject the coup as extremists, terrorists and advocates of violence.
The ‘Memorial Statue’ Massacre – 27 and 28 July 2013
On July 27, 2013 and after the seditious speech of General Al Sisi, Ministry of Interior forces and armed forces troops, assisted by a group of thugs armed with guns, birdshots and bladed weapons attacked peaceful protesters marching through Nasr Road, on their way back to Rabaa Al-Adaweya Square sit-in. This march had started at eight in the evening, reached the beginning of October 6 Bridge and returned at about twelve o'clock midnight to Rabaa Al-Adaweya Square without any of the participants getting involved in any violence. However, protesters in the march were then surprised by barrages of live bullets, birdshots and tear gas canisters fired into the march by members of the security forces, police, army and mobs of thugs carrying firearms, knives and machetes and sheltering behind army and police armored vehicles. Those fired heavily into the unarmed crowds without any justification. Some Ministry of Interior forces, army troops and armed thugs went up to the rooftop of Al Azhar University buildings and the Monument’s observation tower shooting and killing peaceful demonstrators in order to terrorize and intimidate the crowds. On that night, 120 peaceful protesters were killed , hundreds more injured, and 76 nonviolent demonstrators were arrested, some of whom had been already injured. Those were detained and suffered the same savage treatment as many others before them at the hands of security forces, including torture, banning of visits by lawyers or families, interrogations in prisons and other detention centers, and fabrication of many charges with no proof whatsoever.
Nonviolent Marches Attacked, Protesters extra-judicially killed, In All Provinces Across Egypt
The team of researchers documented vast numbers of violations of human rights, freedom of opinion and expression, and the right to assembly and peaceful demonstration in provinces across Egypt. Those are committed daily in the same systematic way used deliberately by the military-appointed authorities to terrorize opponents in every way possible, including all kinds of violations such as extrajudicial killings, discrimination, forced confinement, denial of justice, and fabrication of charges. All these are accompanied by a flood of hatred, a persistent provocative discourse nurtured by hostile Egyptian media, as satellite TV channels launched a campaign of misinformation, vilification, and incitement of hatred and violence.
Attachments hereto contain a list of some of the victims of abuse and attacks on peaceful demonstrators in all provinces throughout the country, and in which security forces did not distinguish between men and women, elderly and children, as they indiscriminately killed, arrested, tortured and terrorized citizens.
Protesters Ask Attorney General to Oversee Peaceful Sit-Ins
With constant threats being made by the military-appointed government, to prevent peaceful anti-coup demonstrations and to forcibly evict nonviolent sit-ins, a group of lawyers participating in the sit-in submitted a communication to the Attorney General (No.10970 of 2013) on August 8, 2013 – almost a week before the sit-ins was dispersed. The lawyers demanded a judicial body should be set up to do its own continuous supervision of the sit-ins. They also asked the Attorney General to personally visit the sit-ins sites and enquire with the owners of buildings as well as local residents and hear the testimony of witnesses. The lawyers also repeatedly asked for inspections of the sit-ins to prove beyond doubt that they were peaceful. They urged the Attorney General not to listen to the fabricated charges coup authorities are making, and to investigate any complaints submitted against the sit-ins, and then take fair, unbiased judicial decisions based on the facts. They also demanded that the Attorney General should take all measures to ensure and guarantee that the security institutions will not execute a new massacre, and warned that he would be complicit in any crimes if he fails to use his legal authority to take the necessary measures to stop further bloodshed. However, the Attorney General did not process the lawyers’ communication, nor did he respond to or refer it to a judicial body to process it as is the case with communications and complaints from all opponents of the coup against the ruling authorities in Egypt.
Rabaa Al-Adaweya Sit-In Massacre
On August 14, 2013 the Cabinet, the Minister of Interior and the Minister of Defense issued a decision to break up the anti-coup sit-ins. HRM team of researchers was not able to verify whether the Attorney General also issued a decision in this regard or not.
Testimonies and eyewitness accounts about the Rabaa Al-Adaweya sit-in affirmed the absolutely peaceful nature of the entire camp, and that not a single protester did anything to harm any person or attack private or public property. Sit-in participants invited local and international media establishments and human rights organizations to come visit the sites and see for themselves whether they are peaceful or not. According to the researchers, the place was fully accessible to all: in the entire sit-in site, there was no closed tent or a place where people were forbidden to inspect.
Researchers also documented some minor clashes or altercations between certain local residents and some of the protesters. But these clashes were simply isolated individual cases, alien to the general character of the sit-in.
Further, researchers reported seeing wooden sticks and batons with some protesters, and also some iron plates used as shields. Inside the square, there were teams of volunteers who tried to repel attacks by thugs. Those wore some self-protection items such as helmets used by construction workers, and body shields to protect the torso area similar to those used by players in some rough contact sports. Sit-in participants also built concrete and brick barriers and used sandbags for protection. They built some concrete walls at the square’s entrance from the ‘Memorial Statue’ and Youssef Abbas Street.
Official government sources said protesters had firearms and birdshots, but failed to provide any evidence of that, although the square is surrounded by military installations that boast a large number of surveillance cameras which could provide such evidence.
It should be noted that the description of the following events is based on our Egyptian and British researchers’ own accounts, as they were present in Rabaa Al-Adaweya Square until the sit-in site was completely evicted, and on a collection of more than 134 testimonies by the injured, families of victims and other eyewitnesses, as well as a large number of videos recorded by cameras of some survivors of the dispersal.
At 6:30AM, security forces and army troops, along with a large number of policemen in heavy gear as well as bulldozers, surrounded the square from all sides. Then, bulldozers began to move from all directions toward the center of the square. Protesters inside threw stones at bulldozers and security forces coming at them. The police responded with an extremely heavy barrage of tear gas and birdshots, injuring a large number of people.
A number of doctors and first aid volunteers set up 17 points as field hospitals, with raised flags on which they clearly wrote ‘Field Hospital’. Doctors made a point of putting on full official medical uniforms as they began to receive the wounded. Half an hour after the start of the armed attack all ambulances withdrew completely from the square on orders from the Ministry of Health as it specifically affirmed. Only one ambulance remained, refusing to leave the square, and continued to transport the injured and dead to the field hospital with the help of some motorcycles and civilian vehicles, until a sniper killed the ambulance driver with a live bullet to the head at 1:00PM.
At about 8:00AM, bulldozers surrounded the square from all sides, while security forces cordoned off the square completely, blocking all entrances and exits. They used loudspeakers to broadcast a statement calling on demonstrators to get out of the square, saying that disbanding the sit-in is being carried out in accordance with the law, and monitored by many human rights organizations and the Public Prosecutor. This was later denied by the Public Prosecutor. Similarly, no human rights organization reported overseeing the process of eviction. Researchers also confirmed that there were no safe exits as announced by troops on loudspeakers. Security forces taking part in the eviction deliberately killed anyone who tried to get out of the square. There was even no way to evacuate the bodies or the injured from the square. After surrounding the square from all sides, forces involved in the dispersal of the sit-in fired high-caliber bullets, birdshots and tear-gas canisters at demonstrators who only had stones to defend themselves. This shooting spree continued until 1:30PM, killing and injuring a large number of demonstrators. The makeshift hospitals were completely overwhelmed.
Later on, a large number of Interior Ministry and army snipers appeared on the rooftops of military buildings around the square, and deliberately fired at demonstrators, with direct aim at head, heart or abdomen killing them instantly. Meanwhile, Police and army helicopters flew extensively over the square, and opened fire on protesters.
The killing continued nonstop, from all entrances to the square. Then, security forces began targeting the field hospitals directly, shooting at them, ¬¬be carrying a camera.
The attacking forces continued to move forward slowly, until they reached the main field hospital, at which the dead bodies and the injured were gathered after the troops began targeting other field hospitals across the square.
Forces then stormed the field hospital and killed some of the wounded in front of their families and also killed some doctors who refused to abandon wounded patients. Shortly afterwards, the forces claimed full control of the square, and subsequently set fire to all the tents, even those where many wounded had taken shelter. The attacking forces also set fire to the field hospital, burning many other corpses. They arrested 790 people as they came out of the square.
Some eyewitnesses stated that army and police snipers shot dead some protesters who had been arrested, while they surrendered with their hands up. Cameras recorded some of those scenes.
Researchers affirmed that what happened was a crime against humanity unprecedented in Egypt’s history, and had nothing to do with evicting sit-ins in any way.
Researchers documented forces involved in the eviction of the sit-in killing women and children as well as activists and journalists, and targeted a young girl, barely seventeen years of age, whose only crime was carrying a camera.
This mass-killing crime resulted in the death of almost 2000 unarmed protesters shot directly and fatally in the head, neck and torso areas. The HRM team of researchers have documented testimonies by forensic experts indicating that some of gunshot wounds were caused by heavy weapons and anti-tank fire resulting in explosion of the entire skull or chest cavity with a diameter of ten centimeters. Researchers documented a large number of these injuries, as mentioned in the attached report, and work is underway, documenting the rest of cases.
This violent crackdown also injured more than five thousand unarmed protesters, 790 were arrested, nearly three hundred people still missing and fifty charred bodies so far unidentified. Researchers reported blatant intransigence on the part of authorities refusing to issue burial permits and death certificates, delaying the burial of bodies for 48 hours, forcing some families to bury the bodies of their loved ones without documentation of death.
Nahda and Other Egypt Squares Massacres
On Wednesday August 14, 2013, horrific attacks by the security forces similar to those in Rabaa were launched in all liberty squares across the nation where unarmed protesters rallied against the coup. Coup security forces attacked Nahda square using the same tactics and at the same time as in Rabaa, burnt a number of tents with unarmed protestors still inside, as recorded by many cameras. The attacks and non-stop shooting at the protesters lasted 14 hours. Finally, the sit-in was evacuated at 8:00PM, killing at least 90 protesters .
They further violently attacked all marches out to condemn those massacres in all provinces of Egypt.
The attached report lists some of the deaths and some cases of injury. Also attached is a video report, comprising clips showing these crimes against humanity.
Ramses Square Massacre, August 16 And 17
On Friday August 16, 2013, anti-coup demonstrations came out in all parts of the country. The most massive of these was a demonstration in Ramses Square. Shortly after Friday (noon) prayers, security forces, accompanied by several mobs of armed thugs, fired live ammunition including birdshots into the crowds. The attacks resulted in killing more than 90 people (fully documented in the attachments) and injuring hundreds more. Coup security forces surrounded Al-Fateh Mosque (near Ramses Square), trapping more than five hundred people (Egyptian and foreign), including women, elderly, injured citizens, doctors and journalists. For over 20 hours, police and thugs terrorized those besieged inside the mosque. Women were allowed to leave the mosque, while thugs humiliated and assaulted them on their way out. Subsequently, coup forces arrested all those remained inside, thus bringing the number of detainees to more than 2000 citizens. Attached herewith is also a list of detainee names and types of injuries suffered during the attacks.
Military Operations in Sinai
On Saturday September 14, 2013, eyewitnesses (residents of Sinai) said that genocide operations against them were being executed, especially targeting residen¬¬ts of Sheikh Zowaid, where military operations began – in a manner unheard of since the October 6, 1973 (war against Israel), and that these operations were worse than those carried out by the Israeli army against them.
Live ammunition was used against residents, deliberately targeting tribal elders. Coup forces killed women and children as well as old people. For example, Sheikh Salem Hassan Abu-Deraa and his elderly wife Om-Salman were killed, shot directly in the chest. Rocket-propelled grenades were also fired from an Egyptian Apache helicopter targeting a mosque in the village, which killed a number of worshipers.
The targeting of North Sinai governorate is due largely to its being one of the strongest provinces that support the elected President and reject the coup. The military is therefore inflicting collective punishment on citizens in their homes and in the streets without discrimination, in addition to burning citizens’ cars and forcibly evicting people from their homes, burning or completely demolishing those homes, displacing a lot of citizens, throwing them out into the streets, also burning their farms and killing their livestock.
It is worth mentioning that the military forces’ declared motive is the elimination of hotbeds of terrorism and armed groups. However, in the absence of a system of justice, the lack of impartiality of the public prosecutor and the judiciary, he blackout deliberately imposed by coup authorities, the absence of any evidence confirming the truthfulness of official accounts, and the cold-blooded killing of women, children and elderly people, what is being carried out by the army in the Sinai is certainly a deliberate crime against humanity. As terrorists and outlaws are safe and sound, continuing their violent operations in Sinai-according to official reports-the target was clearly not to apprehend criminals and terrorists, but to punish the people of Sinai for their total refusal of the traitorous, murderous military coup.
Delga Raid Events
On Monday September 16, 2013, dozens of armored military and police vehicles stormed the village of Delga in Minya governorate. Coup security forces imposed a full curfew in the village, then arrested dozens of people at random, and broke into the homes of residents, savagely smashing their doors and windows.
Witnesses said that army and police armored vehicles moved in from all entrances to the village, then attack forces started shooting randomly and heavily, injuring many residents. Subsequently, troops burned private properties belonging to local residents as well as a mosque called ‘Ebad Al-Rahman’.
An official security source announced that the reason for storming Delga was to arrest a number of men accused of torching Deir Mawas police station, Delga police station, as well as homes of some Coptic residents in the village. However, witnesses from the village itself denied all those charges completely, and stressed that the reason for targeting them is their opposition to the coup, their daily demonstrations, their describing of general Al Sisi as a donkey, and their setting up of ‘popular committees’ of villagers to protect locals, after the mysterious disappearance of regular security forces.
Significantly, security forces failed to find any weapons in Delga, but still arrested many citizens without any legal justification, arrest warrants or similar authorization from the competent judicial body, or evidence of criminal proceedings. They only had security investigation papers prepared after they arrested the villagers.
Kerdasa and Nahia Raids
The following are statements by Nahia residents about the raid events:
One eyewitness said: At 5:00AM, on Thursday September 19, 2013, police and army tanks and armored vehicles surrounded the villages of Kerdasa and Nahia, blocking all entrances, as attack forces claimed they were there to arrest men who had stormed Nahia police station. Security forces entered the villages without resistance from local residents. In Kerdasa, shooting started at 5:30AM at the Maryotia entrance to the village, with live ammunition and tear-gas canisters fired at random. Some officers were in civilian clothes. They stood relatively far from local residents’ homes.
By 6:00AM, Kerdasa’s sky was black with tear-gas smoke. It seemed obvious that this first round was meant to instigate clashes, a provocation for the people, because the storming of the villages was not met with any resistance from local residents.
At that time, army troops in Nahia stood near the new bridge firing live bullets into the air to scare people. Shortly afterwards, a massive police force began moving in, with armored vehicles, troop-carriers and many infantry soldiers pouring into the village’s streets. Forces combed all the streets and stormed the houses, smashing all their contents and arresting some of the residents. If they did not find a wanted person they would take any member of his family – man, woman, child or elderly person. By sunset, things were getting quieter, but security forces remained stationed at all village entrances and various locations inside the two villages. Later, people came out in demonstrations in both Nahia and Kerdasa to condemn the storming of their villages and destruction of their houses and properties. Army troops fired live bullets in the air in the Nahia rally to disperse protesters.
On Friday September 20, 2013 after noon prayers, people came out in two marches in Nahia and Kerdasa. Army soldiers fired live bullets and tear-gas canisters into the crowds in the Nahia march. I did not see any injuries, but lots of people suffered suffocation from the teargas, mostly children. This was the last time I heard gunfire.
Another eyewitness said: Since the day they stormed the villages, all entrances have remained blocked by coup security forces. They open an entrance or two sometimes. Police forces enter Kerdasa and Nahia at 10:00AM sometimes accompanied by armed forces units. They drive around the villages (with police guides from the area), storm homes, smash up their contents, and arrested people. From sunset to dawn things become quiet as these forces return to their assembly points. Local residents still come out to rally in marches every day, after evening prayers.
Other residents affirmed: Most of those arrested do not belong to the Muslim Brotherhood and have no political or jihadist activity. In fact, they have nothing to do with anything.
According to an Interior Ministry official statement issued in the evening of Thursday September 19, it "arrested 68 terrorists and seized a number of automatic weapons, grenades and birdshots in their possession".
Insaniya and HRM have a list of 127 names for whom arrest warrants had been issued in Kerdasa and Nahia, as verified by one of HRM’s lawyers.
October 6, 2013 Massacre
On Sunday October 6, 2013 mass demonstrations rallied peacefully in all parts of Egypt. Army and police forces accompanied by mobs of thugs who collaborated with them attacked most of these marches. Although anti-coup protesters had announced very early their intention to demonstrate peacefully in Tahrir Square, security authorities decided to organize pro-coup celebrations in Tahrir and mobilized many police and army forces to guard the entrances to the square. It was clear strict orders had been issued to shoot live ammunition directly into any rally approaching the square. Coup security forces killed 46 people and wounded dozens. Similarly, all peaceful marches that came out that day were attacked, causing the deaths of many, including female student Rofidah Sayf who was barely seventeen years of age.
Absurdly, Tahrir Square is one of the places considered completely off-limits to demonstrations against the coup. Security forces were perfectly prepared to kill all those who approach the square to demonstrate or organize a sit-in against the coup. Despite attempts by anti-coup protesters to enter Tahrir, police and army use of excessive violence and live bullets prevented them from marching in peaceful demonstrations in Tahrir Square.
In the course of that day, security authorities arrested at least 532 people from the vicinity of Cairo's Tahrir Square alone.
October 11, 2013 Events
Friday October 11, 2013 marked the completion of 100 days of the July 3 military coup. Hundreds of thousands of demonstrators turned out to condemn the coup and the massacres it perpetrated all over Egypt. Peaceful protesters were confronted with excessive force and live bullets, with many of them killed or injured as a result including the 18 year old university student Belal Ali Gaber who was directly shot in the heart causing his death on the spot.
Events of Mohamed Mahmoud anniversary
On Tuesday, November 19, 2013, At least two protesters were killed in clashes, which erupted near Tahrir Square on Tuesday on the second anniversary of the 2011 Mohamed Mahmoud Street clashes.
Security forces broke into Tahrir Square in the early hours of Wednesday, clearing it of all protesters. At least two men were killed; one of them was the 23-year-old student Mahmoud Abdel Hakim who was killed of birdshots in the head, leading to his immediate death. A large number of protesters were seriously injured as a result of excessive use of violence, live ammunition and tear gas canisters used by the police against demonstrators who turned to Tahrir Square to commemorate Mohammed Mahmoud events.
Al-Azhar Dormitory Events
On Wednesday November 20, 2013, student protests began in the morning outside Al-Azhar Institute condemning the arrests and death of Al-Azhar University students during the past four months.
In the evening of Wednesday, security forces used excessive force against the protesting students while storming the dormitory of the university firing live bullets and tear gas canisters at the students who responded to this by throwing rocks at the forces.
The use of live ammunition resulted in the killing of Abdel Ghani Mohamed Hamouda, Al-Azhar medicine student who died of injuries caused by birdshots in the head fired from a distance of 6 meters only according to the forensic report. Tens of students were also injured and 16 others were arrested and interrogated by the public prosecution; which charged them with possession of firearms, bladed weapons, possession of leaflets inciting against the military forces, as well as disturbing public peace and resisting the authorities. The same incident was repeated in december and resulted in the killing of a large number of students.
Cairo University events
On Thursday, November 28, 2013, demonstrations against the coup began at the University of Cairo. Security forces used water cannons, tear gas canisters and live bullets to disperse the demonstrators who took to the main street outside the University of Cairo. The attacks resulted in wounding seven students and killing Mohammed Reda Mohamed, 19 years old student, a second year student at the Faculty Engineering in the University of Cairo. Mr Mohamed was the first student killed since the adoption of the demonstrations law by the Egyptian authorities. The law, which allows security forces to use force to disperse the demonstrations that are held without obtaining an approval by the police.
Al-Azhar University Events
On Monday, December 9, 2013 security forces used excessive force against the students of Al-Azhar University while demonstrating inside the university, killing at least two students. Mr Mohammed Yahya Eltahawy was killed of a direct gunshot in the chest and Mr Ahmed Mamdouh was killed of birdshots after bleeding to death from his injuries as security forces refused to admit him to hospital. Tens of students were injured as a result of the use of excessive forces and tear while storming the university campus and arresting tens of students.
The same events was repeated in December resulting in the killing of a large number of students, injury of hundreds and the arrest of hundreds including girls.
3 January 2014, Nationwide events
On 3 January 2014, six months following the beginning of the military coup, the Egyptian revolutionists went of protests nationwide in Egypt. The police as well as security forces faced the protesters with live bullets, birdshots and tear gas, which resulted in the killing of 20 people, among them is 82 year old Mrs Zainab, who was shot in the head and died at once. A number of hospitals refused to receive the injured leaving them to die of their injuries. In response to the increased violence, protesters burnt down police vehicles and trucks.