Egypt has always been one of the countries of major influence, and it has always been the focus of regional attention for its geographical location and cultural influence in the Middle East and the world.
Recently, international politics and special interests of various states and their allies played a significant role in determining the positions taken by major countries of influence in the world regarding the latest events in Egypt. States that know for certain that what happened in Egypt is most clearly a full-fledged military coup against the first elected government in Egypt, do not want to say that for fear of the impact on their interests and relationship with the coup government, as well as the armed forces. In part, they do this in response to relentless pressures from Israel which is keenly interested in the success of the Egyptian coup, since the results of the ballot box and democracy in Egypt brought in certain political currents unflavored by Israel.
Egypt which was for long almost fully subservient to the American administration, now after the January 25th Revolution seemed quite determined to make its own decisions, serve its own interest, and respond positively to the demands and ambitions of the Egyptian people, without anyone to control or dominate them, contrary to what the neighboring state wants.
Amid these gray and fluid stances, impacted by political balances, the United Nations’ position too was hazy and gray. It did not declare satisfaction for the violations that occur in Egypt, nor does it seem strong enough to make a decision to send a fact-finding panel or apply pressure on the coup government to stop the violations that clearly put all pro-coup states in great embarrassment before their own peoples and the whole world.
Asserting the humanitarian imperative and the urgency of the mission that Insaniya and HRM were established to perform, we sent a specialized team of researchers consisting of jurists and lawyers and legal experts to Egypt. We were directly present in most of the events to record and document what we could see directly. We met with hundreds of eyewitnesses, and obtained their testimonies about events. We collected dozens of video clips that documented events from several angles.
Insaniya and HRM also endeavored to get all official reports issued by the coup government and review security records that described the events from the viewpoint of security agencies. We contacted victims’ families as well as lawyers of the victims' families and verified their statements by checking them against official registers and records. Thus, we have a complete picture that we are certain beyond any doubt conforms to reality.
We have drawn important conclusions out of this report, in accordance with laws, treaties and international conventions and norms. They are as follows:
- What happened in Egypt is an armed military coup that took advantage of social and economic problems in Egypt and the inexperience of political forces that took power through democratic elections for the first time in Egypt's history, and feelings of anger amongst the people for deterioration of basic services in the country, to show the coup as a response to popular displeasure and to attempt to recall the image of the January 25 Revolution to justify its illegitimate action.
- The coup in Egypt is a clear setback to the march on the democratic path and the climate of freedom, which the Egyptian people regained in the January 25 Revolution. The coup is a reverse transformation, from democracy, popular will and an elected authority to a dictatorship, a military will, and a repressive government. Even if a broad sector of the Egyptian people was dissatisfied with the failures of the elected government, there was no justification for a coup or even a popular revolution. A revolution is an expression of general anger as a result of blockage in all political routes that are usually channeled through state institutions and the various relevant authorities.
- Under the elected Egyptian government, the political path was open for parliamentary elections about to be held. It was the right of the majority in that election to limit the powers of the President or even decide whether he stays or is ousted, and also to amend the Constitution in a legal, constitutional and natural manner without any need for exceptional actions or measures.
- The judicial path, too, was accessible to all, completely isolated from the control of the ruling authorities. Many rulings were issued against the decisions of the highest administrative head of the executive branch, without any judge fearing repression from the authorities. Also many criminal verdicts were issued against supporters of the President, without the authorities applying any pressure on judges or intervening to change these verdicts, even those verdicts which caused the authorities major embarrassment – like the ruling released in Ismailia Misdemeanor Court calling for investigation of the President of the Republic relating to his supposed escape from Wadi Natrun Prison.
- This confirms that judges were not subject to any pressure or interference while making their rulings and doing their duties, except for certain procedures such as the appointment of the Attorney General in an exceptional manner, before drafting the Constitution in a decision that was challenged through normal judicial proceedings and was canceled, as well, without interference from the executive branch.
- The scope of freedom of political action was wide open for all citizens without discrimination. No political faction was subjected to arrest, official media vilification or arson of its headquarters, with the exception of the party that the President once belonged to. All that while criticism of the ruling authorities continued tirelessly, sometimes spilling over and out of the circle of freedom to that of incitement and defamation. Still, no exceptional action was taken against anyone by the governing authorities.
- The current authorities came to power by armed force and executed acts of repression, killings, arrests and terror against citizens opposed to the coup. It issued a number of exceptional laws that violated all international laws and conventions as well as human rights and freedoms, including the right to a decent life.
- Obstruction in all institutions became the norm throughout the country. The judiciary lost its impartiality completely, especially the Attorney-General and his associates. Political processes and channels are blocked with repressive actions that trampled liberties. The human perspective diminished and disappeared from government perception. Meanwhile, the countries of the world are still worried about political balances rather than the blood of Egyptians being spilt every day.
- Coup authorities have committed a large number of massacres and aggression as well as many crimes against humanity. None of its criminals was held accountable or tried before local or international courts. The United Nations failed to do its part in the protection of human rights or even the formation of a fact-finding committee to investigate the situation in Egypt.
- This report tracks some of these crimes since the coup. These crimes, apparently are the result of decisions and laws made by the current authorities, are likely to continue and increase in the coming days.
- The report also documents a tremendous amount of abuses and violations of international and domestic laws.
- We attach hereto a compact disc that includes documentation and evidence relating to numbers and names of the dead and to some of the injured, missing and detainees, and contains some videos recorded by activists and which confirm the accounts of events we tracked.
- We have more evidence and testimonies in our possession, which we have not disclosed at this time for fear of prosecution of eyewitnesses by coup security authorities. However, Insaniya and HRM will cooperate fully with any judicial or legal body in the world who will take legal action against responsible officials in Egypt’s current authorities.
- There is still an opportunity to stop the daily spilling of Egyptian blood by the brutal coup forces and the repressive authorities in Egypt. There is also enough time to save Egypt from the fate of the Syria, Iraq and Lebanon, although all the actions and practices of the coup authorities seem to be pushing towards provoking citizens into armed strife, sedition and division based on political opinion.